whose poison was can rats

It is one of the most toxic substances known to man and has been used to poison kings, emperors and even prize winning racehorses.But scientists have discovered one small population of people living in a remote part of the Andes in north west Argentina who have developed some resistance to arsenic.They have found that over thousands of years the local inhabitants there have developed a genetic ability to metabolise the arsenic to reduce the impact it has on their bodies.
Local women in San Antonio de los Cobres in the Andes (pictutred above) carry a genetic variant that gives them greater tolerance of the poison arsenic by helping them to metabolise the element more efficientlyWorldwide arsenic poisoning caused by contaminated water and food is thought to harm more than 137 million people.
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Even low levels of arsenic poisoning can cause damage to the lungs, heart, kidneys and liver, leading to cancer, heart disease and diabetes. DID ARSENIC KILL NAPOLEON Napoleon Bonaparte’s mysterious death has generated a host of murder conspiracy theories over the years. The Emperor was said to have died from stomach cancer. The physician who led the autopsy found evidence of a stomach ulcer but some people said it was the most convenient explanation for the British, who wanted to avoid criticism over their care of the Emperor. Napoleons father died of stomach cancer.In 1955 the diaries of the leaders valet were published, which included the description of bed-bound Napoleon months before his death. Based on the description, scientists put forward other theories as to why he died – which included arsenic poisoning.Arsenic was used as a poison during the era because it was undetectable when administered over a long period.It was noted in a later book that Napoleons body was found to be remarkably well preserved when moved in 1840 and arsenic is a preservative.In 2007 a toxicologist said he found mineral arsenic in napoleons hair shafts, which supported the theory that he was murdered.The wallpaper used in the emperors bedroom on St Helena also contained high levels of arsenic compound used by British manufacturers as a dye.It has been suspected that if the wallpaper got hot it might have emitted the poisonous gas arsine, but other scientists think the poison would have had to be consumed internally – or that the leader really did die of cancer.  In higher doses it can damage the immune system, trigger bleeding, convulsions and eventually coma and death.However, people living in the sparsely populated area around San Antonio de los Cobres, a village high in the Andes in the Puna region of Argentina, appear to have developed a way of dealing with the poison more effectively.For close to 11,000 years the indigenous population there, who are descended from the Atacameños people, have been drinking water contaminated with arsenic.Dr Karin Broberg, a researcher in environmental medicine at Lunds University in Sweden, and her colleagues found that some time between 7,000 and 10,000 years ago, the local populations in the region underwent some genetic changes that have given a greater resistance to arsenic.They found that the people living in the area are able to consume more than 20 times the levels that are currently considered to be a safe expsoure level.Dr Broberg told MailOnline: The arsenic is in the volcanic bedrock and at some places in higher concentrations.The arsenic has then been released into springs that are used for drinking water purposes.Yet the people living in this area have a relatively high arsenic exposure and a efficient and less toxic metabolism.Dr Broberg and her colleagues, whose work is published in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution, studied the genome of 124 Andean women living around the village of San Antonio de los Cobres.They also screened the women for their ability to metabolise arsenic by looking for levels of the mettaliod element in their urine.They pinpointed a key set of mutations in their genes that appear to have given them the ability to tolerate far high levels of arsenic exposure.They found one gene in particular – AS3MT, which is thought to play a role in arsenic metabolism – occurred in far higher frequencies compared to populations living in Columbia and Peru.
The village of San Antonio de los Cobres is located in a remote part of the Andes in north west Argentina
Arsenic was commonly used as an ingredient in medicine and cosmetics but also was often used as a poisonThey estimate that the increase in this gene variant occurred around 10,000 to 7,000 year ago based on high levels of arsenic found in the hair of a mummy excavated in the region.Other populations around the world are known to carry this particular AS3MT gene variant, with the highest frequencies in Peruvians, Native Americans and Vietnam.The researchers say this is an example of human adaptation to an environmental poison – something that is often seen in animals such as rats.Arsenic contamination can occur as a result of industrial activity such as gold mining but also occurs naturally.During the Elizabethan era arsenic trioxide was used to create makeup for womens faces.It was also used to make poisonous gas lewisite during the First World War, which caused its victims to blister before they died.
The bedrock in the area around San Antonio de los Cobres (shown above) contains high levels of arsenicThe poison was also implicated in the causing maddness of King George III and the death of Napoleon Bonaparte.In 2008 the authorities in China also confirmed that Emperoro Guangxu, who was the second last emperor to rule the country, was poisoned with a massive dose of arsenic.King Faisal I of iraq was also found to have suffered symptoms of arsenic poisoning while in Switzerland in 1993 and South American independence leader Simon bolivar is thought to have died due to chronic arsenic poisoning.The successful race horse Phar Lap was also found to have died after a massive dose of arsenic.Dr Broberg said although the people in San Antonio de los Cobres were not consuming anything near these levels, they did have more resistance than other populations.she said: These levels do not result in acute toxicity but arsenic slowly damages cells and tissues and can result in later diseases.It is important to emphasis that the people living in this area also can get adverse effects of arsenic, as arsenic is very potent, despite having a more efficient metabolism. Their potential degree of tolerance is something we want to look into. 

Affection africa chasing they playfulness

This is the heart-warming moment two young African elephants locked trunks in a touching embrace that was caught on camera.The very public display of human-like affection was photographed by Jacques Matthysen at the Kariega Game Reserve, east of Port Elizabeth, South Africa.It occurred while a herd of nearly 30 elephants playfully chased each other and rolled around on the floor at the popular tourist destination.
Photographer Jacques Matthysen said two young elephants locked trunks, like humans would hold hands, in a touching embraceJacques, who works as a photographer for the reserve, said he is used to seeing the young elephants act in a playful manner, but their affectionate behaviour took him by surprise.As Jacques and a group of visitors looked on, two of the elephants stopped chasing each other and entwined their trunks in a loving gesture.
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At one point it appeared as if they were ‘kissing’.The 37-year-old photographer said: ‘The mood in the herd seemed “excited”. We moved out to a safer distance – about 50 metres (164ft) – away when one of the younger bulls, about eight years of age, started chasing a younger bull.
The heart-warming moment occurred as a herd of nearly 30 elephants playfully chased each other and rolled around on the floor‘What we first thought to be aggression, turned out to be all playfulness.‘Soon a number of younger bulls and cows started to play around. They pushed, head butted and rolled onto each other for quite a few minutes.‘Soon after, it looked like they were embracing each other, with gentle touches to the faces with their trunks.’
Jacques Matthysen, the game reserves photographer, said the elephants affectionate behaviour caught him by surpriseHe said two of the elephants locked trunks like humans would hold hands.‘I quickly focused my camera on them, to capture the “loving” moment.‘I am very happy with the sighting and images. This just shows us how these giants, that can be so dangerous and so aggressive, can in fact be so gentle and loving animals.’ 

work of value control

Owners of vicious dogs will not be jailed even if their pet kills, under proposed changes to sentencing.The Sentencing Council published plans yesterday recommending that a dog owner receive a lesser sentence if the animal was provoked into the attack.An owner could also avoid prison if they tried to get their dog under control before its victim died, or if the animal killed while they were momentarily distracted or briefly lost control.
Owners of vicious dogs will not be jailed if their killer animal was provoked into an attack, under proposed changes to sentencing (file picture)The changes will now be subject to a three-month consultation period.The Council is led by Lord Chief Justice Lord Thomas and sets down rules that judges and magistrates must abide by.Its report said that new guidelines are necessary to deal with the new law and guide the courts on cases ‘of the utmost seriousness involving a fatality’. 
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However, critics accused the changes of undermining the Dangerous Dogs Act, put into force last year, which increased the maximum sentence a dog owner whose pet kills can receive to 14 years.The reformed law was brought in after 14-year-old Jade Anderson was mauled to death by four dogs when she visited a friend’s house in 2013. But the plans published yesterday say that if the dog owner or handler has ‘lesser culpability’ then a deadly attack by their animal could lead to a community sentence rather than a prison term if they are convicted under the Act. 
Jade Anderson, 14, was mauled to death by four dogs in 2013, prompting the introduction of the Dangerous Dogs Act Such a sentence could mean less than a month’s unpaid work or four months of electronic tagging.The proposals recommend that the maximum sentence might go to ‘someone who has bred or trained a dog to be aggressive and uses the dog as a weapon or to intimidate people, whose dog carries out a fatal attack’. Evidence of lesser culpability, the consultation paper said, would include the provocation of the dog without any fault on the part of the owner. It would also bring a lesser sentence if the owner tried to restrain the animal, had tried to control it, could not have foreseen the attack, or had a momentary lapse of control or attention.Circuit Judge Julian Goose, a member of the Sentencing Council, said: ‘Most dog owners are responsible, care for their pets properly and keep them under control but some irresponsible owners put others at risk of injury or death and we want to ensure that the courts have the guidance needed to help them sentence offenders appropriately.‘In drawing up our proposals, we have been very aware of the potentially devastating impact of these offences on victims. Long sentences are available for the most serious offences. Sentencers are also encouraged to use their powers where appropriate to ban people from keeping dogs or to order them to pay compensation to victims.’Trevor Cooper of the Dogs Trust said: ‘We are pleased to see the proposals recognise that there can be a range of culpability on the part of offenders for these offences, and that courts should carefully consider the appropriate sentence in each case.’ But criminologist Dr David Green of the Civitas think-tank disagreed: ‘If there is a fatal attack the owner should always be held responsible and society should signal its strong disapproval by insisting on a prison sentence. To do otherwise is putting a low value on human life.’He added: ‘It might be that you have your dog on a lead and someone pokes it with a stick. But if you have a dog, whatever the circumstances, you cannot allow it to kill someone. If you do you should go to jail. The starting point for causing a death should be a serious custodial sentence.’